Tartar and Dental Care

Tartar.
A common condition in the human mouth and a celebrity in TV advertisement.
But did you know that your furry friend can also suffer from sticky yellow teeth?

Calculus (Cremor dentium, odontolithiasis) is a condition that is presented at our clinic on a daily basis. This yellow or yellow-brown substance is composed mainly of minerals and catches micro-organisms like a web, accumulating them on the tooth’s surface which causes local inflammation. If untreated, the latter may have heavy consequences – dental caries, gingivitis, paradontitis, tooth death and sometimes the inflammation may reach the brain.

does calculus develop?

Depending on the location on which it forms, tartar can be classified as supragingival or subgingival.

Supragingival calculus appears on the crowns and can be either white or brown in colour, the latter being harder and denser than the prior. It can be found most often on the upper molars.
Subgingival calculus is not as common and is located between the tooth and the gingiva. It is characterized as a thick brown uneven plaque that is glued tightly to the tooth and causes mircotraumas to the gingiva due to its edges.

does calculus develop?

The formation of calculus is not restricted by are in animals. The culprits responsible for its appearance are one or a combination of the following factors:

  • Food
  • Saliva
  • Oral injuries

Food is an essential part of keeping your animal’s organism healthy, its teeth included. What has the strongest influence on tooth vitality, however, is not the chemical composition of the meal, but its physical properties – shape, form and texture.
Frequent consumption of soft and wet food creates the perfect environment for tartar formation, while large and hard pieces prevent its accumulation. Small-sized kibble has negative effects in large breeds.
Regarding the shape, there have been a number of studies that prove that the difference in jaw structure determines the difference in shape requirements. Many brands have taken this under consideration and have modified their products to fit various breeds.

Saliva plays a role in the formation of tartar when it is overproduced, when its pH has changed or when plaque is already present. The high amounts of salts which it contains, especially those of calcium and potassium, form layer after layer on the tooth’s surface, eventually forming calculus.

Oral injuries that pertain to teeth being incapable of working properly cause favourable conditions for the formation of tartar. Such plights are twisted teeth, milk teeth not falling, jaw trauma and many more. This category also includes diseases of the salivary glands, wounds in the mouth’s mucosa and tumours in the oral cavity.

can I tell that my pet has calculous?

If you perform a weekly check-up at home, you will likely notice how your pet’s teeth steadily change their colour and smoothness. Unfortunately, many owners neglect the dental hygiene of their animals and discover the condition when damage has already been done. With time the pet’s breath becomes foul, they avoid eating hard food or refuse eating at all, their teeth turn dark and loosen. In some complicated cases medication is prescribed after removal of the calculus.

One of the most efficient tools for cleaning your pets’ teeth is the unltrasound scaler. This is a harmless procedure, which does not harm the oral cavity and the organism as a whole. However, the animal must be sedated beforehand.

At M&B Clinic our main priority
is prevention.

If you wish to protect your pets from the formation of tooth calculus, check their oral cavity regularly and do not allow any of the risks mentioned above. At our clinic you can find a number of products for additional dental care, such as toothpaste, toothbrushes, dental water, dental bones and sticks.

In order to make sure that your pet has
no tooth ailments, We recommend bringing it
to the clinic for an examination every 6 months.

Dr. Nikolova cleans the teeth of a young dog

Why should I vaccinate my pet?

Vaccination is the safest, easiest and least painful way for you to protect your pet from numerous diseases, many of which have a fatal without prior immunization.

Vaccination is a mandatory method of prevention and is carried out in accordance with a species-specific schedule. By placing several injections during its youth, your pet steadily develops a strong defence against some of the most cruel of illnesses: rabies, plague, parvovirosis.

At M&B Clinic We work with the following plans:

For puppies

  • Deworming on the 20th day
  • Deworming on the 30th day
  • First vaccine
  • Second vaccine
  • Third vaccine

For kittens

  • Deworming on the 30th day
  • Deworming on the 60th day
  • First vaccine
  • Second vaccine

The first vaccine for puppies is injected between the ages of 42 and 45 days. It protects them from canine distemper (canine plague) and parvovirosis. Kittens receive their first vaccine at 90 days of age and it shields them from panleukopenia (feline plague), clicivirosis and infectious rhinotracheitis.

The second vaccine for puppies must be placed when they are 60-65 days of age and “teaches” their cells to how to fight leptosirosis, infectious hepatitis and parainfluenza. Kittens must receive their second vaccine at 120 days of age, in order to gain immunity to rabies. In both cases the vaccine repeats the “lessons” from the first vaccine.

The third vaccine is injected when the puppies are 90 days old. It repeats the “lessons” from the previous vaccines and gives their immune system knowledge about rabies.

After the last vaccine all animals must be vaccinated against rabies after one full year,
in accordance with the law of the Republic of Bulgaria.

Every animal, regardless of its age, can begin a vaccination procedure, if it is healthy. If you have recently adopted your little friend, observe it for 2-3 days. If it displays worrisome signs or if there are parasites in its feces, notify the veterinarian immediately.


How can I tell that my animal is unwell?

Before the beginning and two weeks after the end of the vaccination procedure your pet should not have contact with other animals or the outside world. This allows its immune system to calmly grow strong.

Although an exceptional rarity, owners should be aware that some animals may develop an allergic reaction. It manifests with swelling around the the eyes and muzzle, heavy breathing, rashes and unease. If this happens, bring your pet to the clinic immediately!

Thanks to the decades of strict vaccination of hundreds of animals today
the rabies virus does not exists in Bulgaria, while canine distemper is an anomaly.
However, this does not mean that these viruses can not enter our country from the outside.
For this reason, We strongly advice you to adhere to the immunisation plan of your pet!

How can I tell that my animal is unwell?

In spite of your best efforts to maintain a clean and healthy living environment for your pet, the risk of them becoming ill will always be present. Whether a mild cold or a life-threatening condition, early diagnosis is the key to quick and easy recovery. In order to ease your duty, We have provided you with a small guide, containing some of the most common signs you should always be vigilant for.

The first changes, which you will notice when your pet becomes sick or is in pain, are in its behaviour. How they will manifest depends on the type and number of pain centres, the illness, the animal’s personality, the environment and other factors. Usually you may observe some of the following patterns:

  • Tiredness
  • Solitude
  • Unwarranted fear
  • Unwarranted aggression
  • Hiding, pointing or watching the painful part of the body
  • Tilting of the head
  • Rubbing of the rear on the floor or on objects
  • Scratching or biting the skin
  • Plucking fur or feathers
  • Not answering when being called
  • Letting out agonizing sounds
  • Increased or decreased appetite
  • Pica (abnormal appetite)
  • Changes in breathing
  • Changes in posture

The skin and its features are important indicators of your pet’s well-being.
When they are healthy, animals should have soft flexible light pinkish-red skin. Mammals should have cold and wet noses. Both fur and feathers should be close to the body, glossy and smooth.
Possible changes here are:

  • Pale skin
  • Flushed skin
  • Blue skin
  • Yellow skin
  • Hardened skin
  • Cracking and pealing skin
  • Dry nose (mammals)
  • Increased or decreased body temperature
  • Sweating*
  • Vesicles or blisters
  • Swelling
  • Loss of fur or feathers
  • Chance in colour of fur or feathers
  • Black sediments at the base of fur or feathers
  • Fragile fur or feathers
  • Oily fur or feathers
  • Matting
  • Dandruff

*Carnivores have sweat glands only on their footpads.
Horses sweat intensively around their nose, eyes, mouth, at the base of the ears, on the neck, around their elbows, at the sides of their ribcage and in the inguinal region.
Birds, reptiles and amphibians do not sweat.

„The eyes are a window to the soul.“
The visible changes in the eyes are few in number, yet significant for the diagnosis of certain illnesses.
Some of them are:

  • Endophthalmos/Exophthalmos
  • Yellowing of the sclera
  • Reddening of the sclera
  • Hazy eyes
  • Uneven surface of the eyes
  • Tearing up
  • Purulent discharge around the eyes
  • Затваряне на едното око
  • Bending of the eyelid

Other changes, which you may notice, are:

  • Discharge from the nose
  • Coughing
  • Bad breath
  • Prolonged periods between bathroom usage
  • Frequent urination
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Blood in the urine or stool

When suspicion arises, do not wait!


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